9 skills of coaching

The 9 Change Skills of Coaching

            1) Awakening                                                           

            2) Challenging                                                           

            3) Provoking                                                           

            4) Probing: Questioning and Meta-Questioning

            5) Co-Creating: Framing, Deframing, Reframing

            6) Actualizing

            7) Reinforcing   / Celebrating

            8) Testing

            9) Facilitating

Individuals who have achieved the PCMC credential have been benchmarked and demonstrated competency all 9 of these Change Coaching skills.


1) Awakening

A sense of waking up to new ideas, possibilities, and a new world of experience.  To become aware or conscious of new possibilities.


5   Evoking Highest Possibility for Client

Asking out-of-the-box questions, miracle questions, interviewing an expert or person who has achieved something deemed impossible. Eliciting states ( see Eliciting States) of possibility in the client demonstrated by  hearing the client say ‘wow...' and ‘I've always wanted to....' etc


4   Questioning Intentionality

Asking about possibilities ("what if...?"  "Just imagine if...").  Asking repeatedly about hopes and dreams that invites meta-outcome questions, questions of highest intentionality.


3   Questioning Clients Dreams

Asking well-formed outcome questions, giving examples of possibilities, telling stories of people who succeeded in similar circumstances,  asking "What do you want?" questions.


2    Imposing Own Dreams

Setting forth some ideas that begin to invite the client to dream about new possibilities, asking about the goals and hopes of the client.  Speaking with animated voice.  "Would you like X?"


1   Suggesting Change

Asking or suggesting that things could be different, but providing no examples, sharing no personal stories to arouse such hope.


0   Inviting Defeat

No words, questions, or suggestions that invites new possibilities.  Communicating in a slow or dull way that says or suggests a defeatist position, that things are fated, the way they are, that change is not possible.


2) Challenging

To identify current reality and to highlight it in a client's awareness so that he or she recognizes the things currently at work and the consequences that will result if unchanged, and therefore the things to move away from.


5     Clients Moves Away From Client Reality

Continuing explorations into unpleasant present and futures, doing so with more confrontation that prods, pokes, and nudges the client to feel the need to move away-from current situation.


4     Increasing Level of  Discomfort in Current Reality

After mentioning and asking about current reality, exploring further into how painful, unpleasant, and undesirable things will be if unchanged.  Doing this in a matter-of-fact tone and attitude.  Inducing a state of intolerance and high level frustration about current state and direction.


3     Inducing Need to Move Away From Current Reality

Mentioning and asking questions about current reality to induce the client to feel the need to move away from the current situation, problems, and anticipated consequences.  Inviting client to stay with the emotions and awarenesses even though unpleasant.  Asking SWOT questions.  "What stops you?" "What gets in your way from...?"

2     Shifting Focus From Current Reality if Client Expresses Discomfort

Mentioning and asking questions about current reality, but moving away from such if the client begins to feel frustrated, upset, angry, anxious, or fearful.  Quickly moving to a "thinking positive" mode, rescuing client from facing the current reality of his or her situation.  Mirroring or pacing back current reality.


1     Brief Attention on Current Reality

Briefly or slightly mentioning the client's current situation, but not dwelling on it, quickly moving away from speaking about anything unpleasant, negative, or that would lead to painful consequences.


0     No Attention on Current Reality

No mention, questioning, or elicitation about current reality, only speaking about the past or future, asking or mentioned outcomes and goals.


3) Prober

To penetrate into a client's frame of mind and matrices of frames about beliefs, values, understandings, expectations, etc.  To thoroughly investigate the client's mental models that have created his or her current reality.


5    Persistently and Patiently Not Letting Client off the Hook

Persistent questioning that invites and even pushes a person to look at all of the frames of mind and mental models, relentless returning to the exploration and never letting the person off the hook even if the awareness becomes painful or unpleasant.  Using "opening up" frame questions.


4    Exploring What is Not Being Said

Continuous questions about client's inner mental frames using a tonality of curiosity and wonder that invites the client to really explore the inside of things.  Asking about the things not saidUsing silence for client to be with the thoughts and feelings.  Asking about the critical variables and the resources that make it so or that would change it.


3    Many Questions that Explore Client's Internal World

Increase questioning and exploring of the client's state of mind, mental maps of the world, and frames about beliefs and values.  Asking about how an experience works, the variables that operate within it, how client perceives things.


2    Minimal Questioning About Client's Internal World

Lots of questions that show interest in a client's situation, contexts, and behaviors, but few if any about the client's inner world of thinking and mapping.


1    Questioning Primary State

Basic questions about a client's current situation and beliefs, few to no questions about frames of mind, internal thinking, or mental mapping that creates current situation and responses.


0    No Exploration or Questioning

Failure to ask questions, or to explore the client's current thinking or frames of mind, no inquiry into belief or value frames, no sense of wonder or curiosity about the client's current frames of mind or beliefs.

4) Provoking

To strongly, surprisingly elicit a response to action that triggers a sense of threshold in the person and gets an action to do something about one's awareness of the need for change.  To incite, call forth, evoke, arouse, annoy, stir up.


5    Client Makes a Decision and Takes Action

Intensity of questioning increases as client is called upon to act immediately, respectfully doubting whether the person has the guts, balls, or courage to take action. Client responds with immediate decision to take action.


4    Playfully Calling for Decision and Action

Questions and statements with a tone of teasing, playing, nudging, mimicking ideas and concepts that create problems for the client, even mocking and playfully insulting that encourage the client to make a decision and take action.


3    Questions that Induce Discomfort

Questions and statements that invite discomfort, irritation, pained awareness and that call for action and that doesn't stop even when the client manifests a negative state.  Mimicking physical gestures and tones with little effect on the client taking action.


2    Questioning & Backing Off

Questions and statements that when used create an awareness of discomfort, stopping before the client takes action.


1    Hinting at the Need for Action

Asking questions that hint at the need for action but do not call the client to take immediate action.


0    Encouragement to Stay in Comfort Zone

No sense of being teased or provoked, lots of nurturing statements of empathy and sympathy that invites a client to feel no need to act or do something.


5) Co-Creating

Sharing ideas, questions, and making statements with a client around the subject of a new set of beliefs, values, and mental models for taking action to achieve some important outcome that's been generated by the client and that fits his or her world.


5    Development of a New & Unique Self-Organizing System

Working collaboratively  with client by asking questions about attractor frames to initiate a self-organizing dynamic, giving tasks (see Tasking) that allow the client to further develop unique strategies and plans for a unique  inner game.  Conversationally facilitating unique questions and patters that solidify a robust new Inner Game.


4    Facilitating Patterns that Form a New Inner Game

Exploring client's ideas, probing client's matrix of frames (see Probing), providing "support" (see Supporting) to nurture the ideas and make it feel safe to develop, giving time to think through the possibilities.  Collaboratively suggesting patterns that client might use to develop resources.  Cheerleading the client's excitement and passion (see Cheerleading).


3    Forming New Strategies

Asking questions about inner resources to evoke memories and imaginations so client begins to create a strategy or plan for succeeding, asking SWOT questions, asking meta-questions about inner frames of beliefs and understandings about new plans.


2    Brainstorming Possibilities

Asking client about outcomes, asking questions that evoke a state of creativity, asking questions and making statements that invite the client to engage in brainstorming that generates a number of possibilities.


1    Giving Suggestions

Asking the client about his or her outcomes, asking well-formed questions about them, inviting the client to consider various suggestions as given by the coach.


0    Giving Advice

No joint discussion about things, telling, giving advice, making evaluations, ordering, consulting, or training a client about what the coach thinks is best.

6) Actualizing  

Inviting a client to translate the new inner game into an actual outer game.  Work with client to get him or her to begin to act on the new game plan.  Asking when, where, how, and working with client to eliminate excuses, fears, and other things that might hold him or her back.  Using Tasking as method for actualizing.


5   Co-Created action plan and refining results.

Co-creating activities that will maximally transfer learnings to everyday life, client expresses motivation and excitement.  Setting up the next step in accountability, exploring the next refinements for the plan or strategy in order to see the client's outcomes fully operational in the right contexts, refusing to let the client off the hook about his or her acting.


4   Action plan with full buy-in, celebrating results.

Giving reasons for activities, presenting with state induction skills (see Inducing states).  Inquiring and celebrating successes in making real the steps and actions, fully exploring and inquiring about results and staying with the inquiring until a full account is given of what worked, to what extent, how well, what else needs to be done, what are the next steps, etc.  Extensive facilitating the body how to feel the ideas of the new inner game (see Facilitation).


3   Action plan with monitoring of results.

Tasking client with list of activities that creates an action plan without providing motivation or understanding of it. Thoroughly monitoring the action plan and tasking assignments.  Getting a list of actual behaviors that client used outside of the coaching session.  Asking lots of questions about the practical experience with a new plan or strategy, specifically coaching the body to feel the ideas of the inner game.


2   Giving tasks but no action plan, some monitoring.

Giving tasks and some action to do but not formal action plan, asking about what client actually did to manifest goals, plans, checking up on tasking assignment, but no follow-through on the results.  Only briefly asking about how the body is manifesting the new game (e.g., breathing, posture, face, voice tone, etc.).


1   Hinting at tasks.

Hinting at tasks but never asking client to do the task, no creation of an action plan, briefly asking about previously set actions.  Asking about results, then quickly returning to other subjects.


0   No follow-up on tasking.

No questions about what the client will do, no questions about how to feel the action plan, or put into neurology, no creating of an action plan or a task.  No mention of the results that a client got from the plans, strategy, or goals set.


7) Reinforcing

Responding to a client in ways that fit for any given client by inducing the feeling of validation, support, affirmation.  Inquiring and discovery of the specific words, gestures, actions, and behaviors that convey such to the client.  Mindful use of reinforcement technology from Behaviorism, scheduled responses that induce more motivation and delight.


5   Sharing own emotions that acknowledges client's successes.

Fully present to the client, sharing emotion, eyes watering or tearing, hand on shoulder, thumbs up, applause, expressing a high sense of value and regard for the success or experience and doing so with emotion, "Good on you!"  "Right on!"


4   Leading celebrations.

From pacing to leading in celebrating by giving space and time to be with the emotions of the value and success, articulating the success in semantically packed words ("This begins to move you to your desired future, doesn't it?")


3   Asking about meaning of success.

Asking meta-questions about the meaning of the success or comment, uses validating language to get expression of value to the success.  High eye contact, presence, emotion in voice and body.


2   Matching emotional state of client, some questioning.

Matching client's state, verbally acknowledging emotion or enthusiasm.  Good bit of eye contact and presence.  Asking some primary questions about the success.


1   Disinterest.

Disinterested listening as evidenced by little eye contact, matching, voice flat, no or low emotional response, no enthusiasm.


0   No emotion.

No emotion or enthusiasm at the announcement of any success the a client mentions.  Unresponsive: comments are ignored or discounted.  No matching of client's state, no time or room to celebrate.  No eye contact.  Weak sense of being present to the client.


8) Testing

Testing a new or different behavior, response, or feeling to see if its present and if it works, putting the change to the test to of effectiveness and robustness, evaluating how effectively it fulfills the action plan.  Asking,"Did it work?"  Confirming (and dis-confirming) when, where, and how they do work, what makes them work, inviting ownership of the ideas, strategies, and plans.


5   Enabling client to self-monitor.

Setting up self-monitoring and social and environmental support that set up self-organizing testing, inducing states that support this openness to testing.


4   Thorough questioning to find next step.

Asking about the effectiveness of the plan, about next steps, what else to do to refine the skills, tasking for continual improvement, checking to see what the client has learned and will do as a result.


3   Lots of questions about results and what got in the way.

Action plan and tasking thoroughly explored, some questions to test for effectiveness, robustness, but not many.  Asking questions about the client's resources when didn't get the desired results, inquiring about how this influences the game plan.


2   Some questions about specific tasks.

Some exploration of action plan and tasking assignments, asking only briefly about what to do next.


1   General inquiry about results.

No questions about the action plan or tasking assignments, only inquiring how things are going in general sense more in sense of small talk.


0   No questions about results.

No questions about how the client is doing, no exploration into changes, no holding accountable for tasks in the action plan.


9) Facilitation

To cerate a safe environment and context that makes it easy for a client to answer questions, explore ideas, and translate his or her outcomes into actual behaviors and skills in life.  To make easier.


5   Client accessing powerful resources and desired outcome.

Eliciting the most powerful resources in client for outcomes, seeing desired behavior in client, giving a great sense of support and respect in the client (see Supporting).  Asking about supporting beliefs, decisions, states, and asking questions that use these resources.


4   Client taking steps.

Using effective transition words, phrases, and stages that allow the client to move smoothly from one step or stage to the next.  Fully pacing the client's matrix of frames (e.g., beliefs, values, etc.).  Receiving comments from the client that "each step just feels natural."  Asking about and working to eliminate interferences.


3   Fully pacing and relevant questions.

Fully pacing the client, asking questions that are completely relevant and useful for client to move from one stage of development in achieving his or her outcomes.  Giving or eliciting step-by-step  awareness of how the processes will occur.  Giving overviews and details appropriate to the client. Eliciting responses (see Inducing States).


2   Appropriate and pacing questions.

Mostly pacing through matching and mirroring physiology and tonality, asking questions that seem relevant to the client's outcomes.


1   Mostly relevant questions.

Asking questions to the client's outcome which assist in building up the mental models for success.  Failure to fully pace the client's current state and thinking and so eliciting some resistance, indicated by client not answering questions, showing frustration with them.


0   Irrelevant questions or statements.

Making statements or asking questions that are irrelevant, nosy, or difficult to answer that confuse or convolute things and that does not enable a client to move to the next step of achievement of a goal, consulting, teaching, etc.